The term neural network had been used to refer to a network of biological neurons. In more common usage, the term is often used to refer to artificial neural networks, which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes. Thus the term 'Neural Network' has two distinct connotations:
Biological neural networks are made up of real biological neurons that are connected or functionally-related in the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system. In the field of neuroscience, they are often identified as groups of neurons that perform a specific physiological function in laboratory analysis.
Artificial neural networks are made up of interconnecting artificial neurons (usually simplified neurons) which may share some properties of biological neural networks. Artificial neural networks may either be used to gain an understanding of biological neural networks, or for solving traditional artificial intelligence tasks without necessarily attempting to model a real biological system.